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Kochi also known as Cochin it is a city located in the Ernakulam District in the Indian state of Kerala. Old Kochi loosely refers to a group of islands including Willingdon Island, Fort Kochi, Mattancherry and Mundamveli. In Mundamveli there is a historically significant Portuguese church named St. Louis and the largest celebration of this church is related to the feast of St. Jacob. Today, Kochi includes Ernakulam, old parts of Kochi, Kumbalangi, and outlying islands.

For many centuries up to and during the British Raj, the city of Kochi was the seat of the eponymous princely state. Kochi traces its history back many centuries, when it was the centre of Indian spice trade for hundreds of years, and was known to the Yavanas (Greeks and Romans), Jews, Arabs and Chinese since ancient times. Kochi earned a significant position on the world trading map after the port at Kodungallur (Cranganore) was destroyed by massive flooding of the river Periyar in 1341.

The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in the books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan, during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of the treasure fleet of Admiral Zheng He. There are also references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Cochin in 1440. Today, Kochi is the commercial hub of Kerala, and one of the fastest growing second-tier metropolises in India.

Kingdom of Cochin (also known as PerumpadappuSwaroopam, Mada-rajyam, GosreeRajyam, or KuruSwaroopam; KocciPerumpa?appu) was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and later Princely State on the Malabar Coast, South India. Once controlling much of the territory between Ponnani and Kochi in Malabar, the Cochin kingdom shrank to its minimal extent as a result of invasions by the Zamorin of Calicut. When Portuguese armadas arrived in India, Cochin was in vassalage to Zamorin and was looking for an opportunity to break away. King UnniGodaVarmaTirumulpadu warmly welcomed Pedro Álvares Cabral on 24 December 1500 and negotiated a treaty of alliance between Portugal and the Cochin kingdom, directed against the Zamorin of Calicut. Cochin became a long-time Portuguese protectorate (1503–1663) providing assistance against native overlords. After the Portuguese, the Dutch East India Company (1663–1795) followed by the English East India Company (1795–1858, confirmed on 6 May 1809), protected the Cochin state.

The Kingdom of Cochin, originally known as PerumpadappuSwarupam, was under the rule of the Later Cheras in the Middle Ages. The Brahmin chief of Perumpadappu (Chitrakuda, Vannerinadu, Ponnanitaluk) had married the sister of the last Later Chera king, Rama VarmaKulashekhara, and as a consequence obtained Mahodayapuram, and Thiruvanchikkulam Temple along with numerous other rights, such as that of the Mamankam festival. After the fall of the MahodayapuramCheras in the 12th century, along with numerous other provinces PerumpadappuSwarupam became a free political entity. However, it was only after the arrival of Portuguese colonizers on the Malabar Coast did the PerumpadappuSwarupamacquire any political importance. Perumpadappu rulers had family relationships with the Nambudiri rulers of Idappally. After the transfer of Kochi and Vypin from Idappally rulers to the Perumpadappu rulers, the latter came to be known as kings of Kochi. Ma Huan, the Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He is on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans, describes the king of Cochin as being a Buddhist.

Pre-history

Not much is known about the prehistory of Kochi. There has been no clear evidence of Stone Age habitation. Quite ironically, Kochi forms the central part of the Megalithic belt of Kerala. The only trace of prehistoric life in the region is the Menhir found in Tripunithura.

Princely rule

The history of Kochi prior to the Portuguese is not well documented. Though places north and south of Kochi are mentioned in quite detail in accounts by ancient travellers, even a mention of Kochi is absent prior to the arrival of the Portuguese. Kochi's prominence as a trading port grew after the collapse of the port at Kodungallur in 1341 AD.

The Cochin State came into existence in 1102 AD after the breaking up of the Kulasekharaempire

Capitals

The capital of PerumpadapuSwaroopam was located at Chitrakooda in the Perumpadapu village of Vanneri from the beginning of the 12th century to the end of the 13th century. Even though the capital of PerumpadapuSwaroopam was in Vanneri, the Perumpadapu king had a palace in Mahodayapuram.

When the Zamorins attacked Vanneri in the later part of the 13th century, PerumpadapuSwaroopam shifted their capital from Vanneri to Mahodayapuram. In 1405 PerumpadapuSwaroopam changed their capital from Mahodayapuram to Cochin. By the end of the 14th century the Zamorin conquered Thrikkanamathilakam and it became a threat for Mahodayapuram (Thiruvanchikulam), which may be the reason that PerumpadapuSwaroopam changed their capital to Cochin from Mahodayapuram. Moreover, in the year 1341 a flood created an island, Puthuvippu (Vypin), and Cochin became a noted natural harbor for the Indian Ocean trade.[10] The old Kodungallore (Cranganore) port lost its importance, which may also be a cause for the shift of the capital. From there on PerumpadapuSwaroopam used the name Cochin Royal Family.

Finally, the arrival of the Portuguese on the Indian subcontinent in the sixteenth century likely influenced Cochin politics. The Kingdom of Cochin was among the first Indian nations to sign a formal treaty with a European power, negotiating trade terms with Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500.

The palace at Kalvathhi was originally the residence of the kings. In 1555, though, the royal palace moved to Mattancherry, and later relocated to (Thrissur). At that time Penvazithampuran (Female Thampuran) and the other Kochuthampurans (other Thampurans except the Valliathampuran (King)) stayed at a palace in Vellarapilly.

In the beginning of 18th century Thripunithura started gaining prominence. The kingdom was ruled from Thrissur, Cochin and Thripunithura. Around 1755 Penvazithampuran (Female Thampuran) and the other Kochuthampurans (other Thampurans) left Vellarapalli and started to live in Thripunithura. Thus Thripunithura became the capital of the Cochin Royal Family.

Alternate names of the Kingdom

PerumpadapuSwaroopam, Madarajyam, GoshreeRajyam, and KuruSwaroopam are among the different names ascribed to the Cochin Kingdom. PerumpadapuVelliyaThampuran, Madamaheeshan, GoshreeBhoopan, KuruBhoomiBhrith are different names for the kings.

According to the wishes of Vishravanan's daughter, Lord Parashurama purportedly retrieved a small piece of land for her called Balapuri, which translates as "small land" (KochuDesham) in Malayalam. This region was later called Kochi (Cochin). According to Nichola County (15th century) and Fr. Paulino da San Bartolomeo (17th century), Kochi was given up after a stream flowed through the place. This may be correct, since the capital of the kingdom was Kochi, and the entire kingdom was known by the name Kochi.

The Thruvanjikulam Temple structure is built in keeping with the Chidambaram architectural form. The temple's founder might have been a CholaPerumal from Chidambaram; there is a tiger inscribed on the flag, called Puliyan, and his realm became known as Pulyannur. This was detailed in the notes of historian Putheyadath Raman Menon. Since PuliyannurNamboothiri (TantriPoornathrayeesa Temple and Cochin Royal Family) originated from this place that Illom got this name. Some scholars suggest that the name Perumpadapu came from PerumbathuraPeriyavar (an elder of Perumbathura, a village near Chidambaram), but this theory lacks evidentiary support.

There was an adoption of Madathinkizu (MadathumKoor) Swoorupam from the PerumpadapuSwaroopam, and there was no predecessor in Madathinkizu; these properties were attached to PerumpadapuSwaroopam. Thus the name Madarajyam came into existence. The Sanskrit version of Madavamsham is GoshreeVamsham (Madu (Malayalam)=Pashu (Malayalam)= Go (Sanskrit)). Kochi is a synonym for Goshree. There was also an adoption from Cochin Royal Family to KuruSwaroopam and finally KuruSwaroopam was merged with Kochi, hence the name KuruSwaroopam.

Rulers of Kochi.

  • UnniRammanKoyil - 11 (1503–1537)
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1537 – 65)
  • KeshavaRamavarma (1565–1601)
  • VeerakeralaVarma (1601 – 15)
  • Ravivarma (1615 – 24)
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1624–1637 )
  • Godhavarma (1637 – 45 )
  • VeeraRayiraVarma (1645 – 46 )
  • VeerakeralaVarma (1645 – 50 )
  • Ramavarma( 1650 – 56 )
  • Rani Gangadhara Lakshmi ( 1656 – 58 )
  • Ramavarma( 1658 – 62 )
  • Godhavarma( 1662 – 63 )
  • Veera Kerala Varma(1663–1687)
  • Rama Varma (1687–1693)
  • Ravi Varma (1693–1697)
  • Rama Varma (1697–1701)
  • Rama Varma (1701–1721)
  • Ravi Varma (1721–1731)
  • Rama Varma (1731–1746)
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1746–1749)
  • Rama Varma (1749–1760)
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1760–1775)
  • Rama Varma (1775–1790)

 

  • Rama Varma(SHAKTAN THAMPURAN(1790–1805),(THE POWERFUL RULER OF COCHIN KINGDOM)
  • Rama Varma (1805–1809)-Vellarapalli-yilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Vellarapali")
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1809–1828) - KarkidakaMaasathilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "karkidaka" month(ME))
  • Rama Varma (1828–1837) - Thulam-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Thulam" month (ME))
  • Rama Varma (1837–1844) - Edava-Maasathil Theepett1a Thampuran (King who died in "Edavam" month (ME))
  • Rama Varma (1844–1851) - Thrishur-ilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Thrishivaperoor" or Thrishur)
  • Veera Kerala Varma (1851–1853) - Kashi-yilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Kashi" or Varanasi)
  • Ravi Varma(1853–1864) - MakaraMaasathilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Makaram" month (ME))
  • Rama Varma(1864–1888) - MithunaMaasathilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Mithunam" month (ME))
  • Kerala Varma(1888–1895) - ChingamMaasathilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Chingam" month (ME))
  • Rama Varma(1895–1914) - aka Rajarshi, Abdicated Highness (died in 1932)
  • Rama Varma(1914–1932) - MadrasilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in Madras or Chennai)
  • Rama Varma(1932–1941) - DhaarmikaChakravarthi (King of Dharma), Chowara-yilTheepettaThampuran (King who died in "Chowara")
  • Kerala Varma (1941–1943) - MidukkanThampuran
  • Ravi Varma(1943–1946) - KunjappanThampuran (Brother of MidukkanThampuran)
  • Kerala Varma(1946–1948) - Ikya-Keralam (Unified Kerala) Thampuran

Foreign Rule

Kochi was under the rule of many foreign powers, during which the Raja of Kochi still remained the titular head.

Portuguese period (1503–1663)

Mattancherry Palace-temple, which was built during the Portuguese period by the Cochin Raja Veera Kerala Varma.

Kochi was the scene of the first European settlement in India. In the year 1500, Portuguese Admiral Pedro Álvares Cabral, landed at Cochin after being repelled from Calicut. The king of the rival of Kochi welcomed his guests and a treaty of friendship was signed. Promising his support in the conquest of Calicut, the admiral coaxed the king into allowing them to build a factory at Cochin. Assured by the support, the king called war with the Zamorins of Calicut. However, the admiral retreated in panic on seeing the powers of the Zamorin. The Zamorins, on the other hand, eager to win the favor of the Portuguese, left without a war.

Another captain, João da Nova was sent in place of Cabral. However, he too faltered at the sight of the Zamorin. The consecutive retreats made the King of Portugal indignant. The king sent Vasco Da Gama, who bombed Calicut and destroyed the

Arab trading posts. This invited the anger of the Zamorin, who declared a war against the Kochi Raja.

The Santa Cruz Cathedral Basilica in Kochi, which was originally built by the Portuguese And also they built a church in Mundamveli in 17th Century.

The war between Calicut and Cochin began on 1 March 1503. However, the oncoming monsoons and the arrival of a small Portuguese fleet under Francisco and Afonso de Albuquerque alarmed the Zamorin, and he recalled his army. The Zamorin resorted to a retreat also because the revered festival of Onam was near, and the Zamorin intended to keep the auspicious day holy. This led to a triumph for the king of Kochi, who was later reestablished in the possession of his kingdom. However, much of the kingdom was burnt and destroyed by the Zamorins.

After securing the king in his throne, the Portuguese got permission to build a fort –- Fort Kochi (Fort Emmanuel) (after the reigning king of Portugal) -- surrounding the Portuguese factory, in order to protect it from any further attacks. The entire work was commissioned by the Cochin Raja, who supplied workers and material. The Raja continued to rule with the help of the Portuguese. Meanwhile, the Portuguese secretly tried to enter into an alliance with the Zamorins. Later attempts by the Zamorin at conquering the Kochi port was thwarted by the Cochin Raja with the help of the Portuguese. Slowly, the Portuguese armory at Kochi was increased, with the presumed notion of helping the raja protect Kochi. However, the measure led to decrease in the power of the Cochin Raja, and an increase in the Portuguese influence.

From 1503 to 1663, Kochi was ruled by Portugal through the namesake Cochin Raja. Kochi remained the capital of Portuguese India till 1510. In 1530, Saint Francis Xavier arrived and founded a Christian mission. This Portuguese period was difficult for the Jews living in the region, since the Inquisition was active in Portuguese India. Kochi hosted the grave of Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese viceroy, who was buried at St. Francis Church until his remains were exhumed and interred in Portugal in 1539. Soon after the time of Albuquerque, the Portuguese rule in Kerala declined. The failure is attributed to intermarriages, forcible conversions, religious persecution, etc.

Dutch period (1663–1773)

The Bolgatty Palace, built in 1744, by Dutch traders, is one of the oldest existing Dutch-era palaces outside of the Netherlands.

The Portuguese rule was followed by that of the Dutch, who had by then conquered Quilon, after various encounters with the Portuguese and their allies. Discontented members of the Cochin Royal family called on the assistance of the Dutch for help in overthrowing the Cochin Raja. The Dutch successfully landed at Njarakal and headed on to capture the fort at Pallippuram, which they handed over to the Zamorin.

MysoreanInvasion

The 1773 conquest of the Mysore King Hyder Ali in the Malabar region descended to Kochi. The Kochi Raja had to pay a subsidy of one hundred thousand of Ikkeri Pagodas (equalling 400,000 modern rupees). Later on, in 1776, Haider captured Trichur, which was under the Kingdom of Kochi. Thus, the Raja was forced to become a tributary of Mysore and to pay a nuzzar of 100,000 of pagodas and 4 elephants and annual tribute of 30,000 pagodas. The hereditary prime ministership of Cochin came to an end during this period.

British Period (1814–1947)

Cochin in 1960s

Cochin in Colonial times

In 1814 according to the Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the islands of Kochi, including Fort Kochi and its territory were ceded to the United Kingdom in exchange for the island of Banca. Even prior to the signing of the treaty, there are evidence of English residents in Kochi.

Towards the early 20th century, trade at the port had increased substantially, and the need to develop the port was greatly felt. Harbour Engineer Robert Bristow, was thus brought to Cochin in 1920 under the direction of Lord Willingdon, then the Governor of Madras. In a span of 21 years, he had transformed Cochin as the safest harbour in the peninsula, where ships berthed alongside the newly reclaimed inner harbour equipped with a long array of steam cranes. Meanwhile, in 1866, Fort Cochin was made a municipality, and its first Municipal Council election to a board of 18 members was conducted in 1883. The Maharajah of Cochin, in 1896 initiated local administration, by forming town councils in Mattancherry and Ernakulam. In 1925, Kochi legislative assembly was constituted due to public pressure on the state. The assembly consisted of 45 members, 10 of who were officially nominated. ThottakkattuMadhaviamma became the first woman to be a member of any legislature in India.

Post-Independence Era

Cochin Harbour in 1960s

In 1947, India gained independence from the British colonial rule. Cochin was the first princely state to join the Indian Union willingly. Post independence, E. IkkandaWarrierbecame the first Prime Minister of Kochi. K. P. Madhavan Nair, P.T Jacob, C. AchuthaMenon, PanampillyGovindaMenon were few of the other stalwarts who were in the forefront of the democratic movements. Then in 1949, Travancore-Cochin state came into being by the merger of Cochin and Travancore, with Parur T. K. NarayanaPillai as the first chief minister. Travancore-Cochin, was in turn merged with the Malabar district of the Madras State. Finally, the Government of India's 1 November 1956 States Re-organization Act inaugurated a new state – Kerala – incorporating Travancore-Cochin, Malabar District, and the Taluk of Kasargod, South Kanara. On 9 July 1960, the Mattancherry council passed a resolution that was forwarded to the government, requesting the formation of a Municipal Corporation by combining the existing municipalities of Fort Kochi, Mattancherry and Ernakulam. The proposal was condemned by the Fort Kochi municipality. However, the Ernakulam municipality welcomed the proposal, suggesting the inclusion of more suburban areas in the amalgamated Corporation. Major BalagangadharaMenon, the then Director of Local Bodies was appointed by the government to study the feasibility of the suggested merger. And based on the report submitted by him, the Kerala Legislative Assembly approved the formation of the Corporation. Thus, on 1 November 1967, exactly 11 years since the conception of the state of Kerala, the corporation of Cochin came into existence, by the merger of the municipalities of Ernakulam, Mattancherry and Fort Kochi, along with that of the Willingdon Island and four panchayats viz. Palluruthy, Vennala, Vyttila and Edappally and the small islands of Gundu and Ramanthuruth.

Tourist attractions in Kochi

Backwaters of Kochi are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India. In Cochin, the stretch from Kochi Azhi to MunambamAzhi, the serene backwaters are popularly known as Veeranpuzha. It is the northern extension of Vembanad Lake. Vembanad Lake (VembanadKayal or VembanadKol) is India's longest lake, and is the largest lake in Kerala. It is also one of the largest lakes in India.

Marine Drive is a picturesque promenade in Kochi. It is built facing the backwaters, and is a popular hangout for the local populace. Marine Drive is also an economically thriving part of the city of Kochi. With several shopping malls it is as an important centre of shopping activity in Kochi. The walkway has two contemporarily constructed bridges, the Rainbow bridge and the Chinese Fishing Net Bridge.The view of the setting and rising sun over the sea mouth, and the gentle breeze from the Vembanad Lake has made Marine Drive an important tourist destination in Kochi. Hundreds of people (both natives, and tourists) throng the walkway during the evenings.

Fort Kochi : situated on the Fort Kochi/Mattancherry peninsula, is the historical part of the city and home to many tourist attractions, such as the cantilevered Chinese fishing nets, the Mattancherry Palace and the Santa Cruz Basilica.

Hill Palace: is the largest archaeological museum in Kerala, near Tripunithura. It was the administrative office of Kochi Rajas. Built in 1865, the Palace complex consists of 49 buildings in the traditional architectural style, spreading across in 54 acres (220,000 m2). The complex has an archaeological Museum, a Heritage Museum, a Deer Park, a prehistoric park and a children's park.

Mattancherry Palace, also known as the Dutch Palace, in Mattancherry, Kochi, features Kerala murals depicting Hindu temple art, portraits and exhibits of the Rajas of Kochi.Mattancherry Palace with its medieval charm is situated at Palace Road, Mattancherry, Kochi. It was built by the Portuguese and presented to Veera Kerala Varma (1537–65), Raja of Kochi, in 1555 AD.The palace is a quadrangular structure built in N?lukettu style, the traditional Kerala style of architecture, with a courtyard in the middle. In the courtyard there stands a small temple dedicated to 'PazhayannurBhagavati', the protective goddess of the Kochi royal family. There are two more temples on either side of the Palace, one dedicated to Lord Krishna and the other to Lord Siva. Certain elements of architecture, as for example the nature of its arches and the proportion of its chambers are indicative of European influence in basic N?luketttu style.

Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium is an international stadium in Kochi, Kerala, India. With a capacity to hold 60,000 spectators, the stadium was built in 1996. Originally constructed as a football stadium, it has played host to a number of international cricket and football matches. The extensive grounds of the stadium serve as venue for important exhibitions, cinema events and political rallies in the city. The stadium is equipped with floodlights for night play. The architecture of the stadium is unique compared to other stadia in India.

Jewish Synagogue: or the Paradesi Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in the Commonwealth of Nations, located in Kochi in South India. It was built in 1568 by the Malabar Yehudan people or Cochin Jewish community in the Kingdom of Cochin. It is also referred to as the Cochin Jewish Synagogue or the Mattancherry Synagogue. The synagogue is located in the quarter of Old Cochin known as Jew Town, and is the only one of the seven synagogues in the area still in use. The complex has four buildings. It was built adjacent to the Mattancherry Palace temple on the land given to the MalabariYehuden community by the Raja of Kochi, RamaVarma. The Mattancherry Palace temple and the Mattancherry synagogue share a common wall.

Santa Cruz Cathedral Basilica: a church built originally by the Portuguese and elevated to a Cathedral by Pope Paul IV in 1558, was spared by the Dutch conquerors who destroyed many Catholic buildings. Later the British demolished the structure and Bishop Dom Gomez Vereira commissioned a new building in 1887. Consecrated in 1905, Santa Cruz was proclaimed a Basilica by the Pope John Paul II in 1984. This magnificent church is a must see destination for tourists who come to Kochi.

Bolgatty Palace: Built by the Dutch in India, it is located in the scenic island popularly known as BolgattyIsland in Kochi. One of the oldest existing Dutch palaces outside Holland, this quaint mansion, built in 1744, by Dutch traders, was later extended and lush green gardens were landscaped around it. The building was then the Governor's palace for the Dutch and later in 1909 was leased to the British. It served as the home of the British Governors, the seat of the British Resident of Cochin during the British regime. In 1947, when India gained independence, the palace became the property of the state and later converted into a heritage hotel resort.

Kochi International Marina: Kochi, nevertheless is an excellent stop for yachts, and the marina is placed ideally within the city, attached to the shoreline of the historic Bolgatty Palace Hotel in Bolgatty Island.

Willingdon Island: A man-made island named after Lord Willingdon a former British Viceroy to India. Southern Naval Command, Cochin Harbour, Port Trust headquarters, Best hotels in the city, major trading centers etc. are situated at Willingdon Island.

Museum of Kerala History: Important scenes of Kerala history are portrayed through sculptures. Greeting the visitor outside the museum is a statue of Parasurama, the mythological sage who is said to have created Kerala. Contemporary Art Gallery, Dolls Collection, Art Exhibition Space etc. are the other attractions. Kerala Museum is located at NH Edappally.

St.Francis Church: originally built in 1503, is the oldest European church in India and has great historical significance as a mute witness to the European colonial struggle in the subcontinent.

Koonankurishu Church, St. George Orthodox Church (Mattancherry), is a revered pilgrim center. It has paramount position among Orthodox Churches as it is home to the holy relics of St.George. It was built on the land where the historical Koonankurishu Oath took place. The land has become sacred with the foot prints of the Persian Prelates, the first Catholicos Mar Thoma I and other venerated fathers of the Orthodox faith. The church was consecrated in 1751, and was renovated later in 1974. Considering the historic importance of the Koonankurish Pally, the Holy Synod elevated the status of the Church and declared it a historic monument as well as a pilgrim center. At present, the church is being renovated again in the 15th century architecture with eco-friendly construction process using compressed soil bricks with no steel and very less cement.

Fort Emmanuel (Immanuel), a former Portuguese fort at the Fort Kochi beach

Pallipuram Fort It was built by the Portuguese in 1503. It is the oldest existing European fort in India. In 1789 the Dutch captured the fort in 1661 and sold it to the State of Travancore. This fort is situated in the northern extremity of the Vypeenisland.

ParikshitThampuran Museum:

Kanjiramattom Mosque:

Bastion Bunglow:

Athirappilly Falls: is in the neighboring Thrissur district and is around 60 km from Kochi. The Chalakudy River, 145 kilometers (90 mi) long, originates in the Anamudi mountains (Western Ghats) and flows through the Vazhachal Forest toward the Arabian Sea. Forest wildlife includes the Asiatic elephant, tiger, leopard, bison, sambar, and lion-tailed macaque. Plantations in the area contain teak, bamboo, and eucalyptus. The river initially runs smoothly but becomes more turbulent as it nears Athirappilly. At Athirappilly Falls, the water surges around big rocks and cascades down in three separate plumes. Below the falls, the river remains turbulent for about 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) until it reaches Kannamkuzhi. Then it calms and flows smoothly until reaching the dam at Imburmuzhi.

Cherai Beach: is a beach is just 30 km from Kochi. The 15 km of long golden beach is shallow, and attracts swimming and sunbathing. Cherai village is a part of Vypin Island.

Kalady: is a popular pilgrim center because it is the birthplace of Sri AdiSankara, one of India's foremost philosopher-saints who preached the Advaita or monastic philosophy.

Bhoothathankettu: is a dam and tourist site. It is situated in the village of Pindimana, about 50 km from the Kochi. Bhoothathankettu is connected to the Salim Ali/Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, where visitors can see different varieties of birds and animals. The Idamalayar reservoir is about 12 km distance from the site.

Chottanikkara Temple: is a famous temple of the Hindu mother goddess Bhagawati. Bhagawati is one of the most popular deities in the area, and she is worshipped at the temple, along with Lord Vishnu, in three different forms: as Saraswati in the morning, draped in white; as Bhadrakali at noon, draped in crimson; and as Durga in the evening, decked in blue. 'ChottanikaraMagam' is the famous religious festival in the temple.

PaliamPalace,Chendamangalam: It is about 42 km from Kochi. The Paliam Palace, residence of the PaliathAchans, hereditary Prime Ministers to the former Maharajas of Kochi, is one of the architectural splendours of Kerala. The Palace is over 450 years old and houses a collection of historic documents and relics.

Malayattoor: is one of the most prominent Christian pilgrim centers in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. The Malayatoor Church of Cochin attracts a large number of devotees from not just Kerala, but also all over India.St. Thomas is believed to have landed in Kerala at Kodungallur (Cranganore) in AD 52. Oral tradition says that while travelling through Malayattor, faced with hostile natives, he fled to the hilltop where he is said to have remained in prayer and that he left his foot prints on one of the rocks. According to beliefs, during prayer, he touched a rock, upon which blood poured from it.

Kadamattom Orthodox Church: is one of the most famous churches in India. The church is built around 10th Century AD in Indo-Persian architecture. The church is famous from a priest - "Kadamattathukattanar" who was famous for his supernatural powers. The church also possess an ancient Persian Cross in one of its Madbaha walls. Poyedam Well and chapel is also another tourist attraction.This Church is under the Kandanad West Diocese of Orthodox Church.

Pazhoor ,Piravom: Hill Palace is the largest archaeological museum in Kerala, near Tripunithura, Kochi,.It was the administrative office of Kochi Rajas. Built in 1865, the Palace complex consists of 49 buildings in the traditional architectural style, spreading across in 54 acres (220,000 m2). The complex has an archaeological museum, a heritage museum, a deer park, a pre-historic park and a children’s park. The campus of the museum is home to several rare species of medicinal plants. Presently the palace has been converted into a museum by The Kerala State Archaeology Department and is open to public all days except Mondays from 9:00 am to 1:00 pm and 2:00 pm to 5:00 pm. The palace is about 12 km from Ernakulam mainland and approachable by road and rail.

Kandanad st. Mary's orthodox church: Kandanad Church is the oldest church which is situated in the sub-urban of Kochi. Most beautiful altar works can be seen here. This church is in the administration of Orthodox Church.There is the tomb of the successor of St.Thomas the Apostle, Marthoma IV. He was ruling the whole Church by staying in this church as Headquarters.